Oral PD-L1 inhibitor GS-4224 selectively engages PD-L1 high cells and elicits pharmacodynamic responses in patients with advanced solid tumors

April, 04, 2024 | Select Oncology Journal Articles


Checkpoint inhibitors targeting the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway are effective therapies in a range of immunogenic cancer types. Blocking this pathway with an oral therapy could benefit patients through greater convenience, particularly in combination regimens, and allow flexible management of immune-mediated toxicities.


PD-L1 binding activity was assessed in engineered dimerization and primary cell target occupancy assays. Preclinical antitumor activity was evaluated in ex vivo and in vivo human PD-L1-expressing tumor models. Human safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and biomarker activity were evaluated in an open-label, multicenter, sequential dose-escalation study in patients with advanced solid tumors. Biomarkers evaluated included target occupancy, flow cytometric immunophenotyping, plasma cytokine measurements, and T-cell receptor sequencing.


GS-4224 binding caused dimerization of PD-L1, blocking its interaction with PD-1 and leading to reversal of T-cell inhibition and increased tumor killing in vitro and in vivo. The potency of GS-4224 was dependent on the density of cell surface PD-L1, with binding being most potent on PD-L1–high cells. In a phase 1 dose-escalation study in patients with advanced solid tumors, treatment was well tolerated at doses of 400–1,500 mg once daily. Administration of GS-4224 was associated with a dose-dependent increase in plasma GS-4224 exposure and reduction in free PD-L1 on peripheral blood T cells, an increase in Ki67 among the PD-1-positive T-cell subsets, and elevated plasma cytokines and chemokines.


GS-4224 is a novel, orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of PD-L1. GS-4224 showed evidence of expected on-target biomarker activity, including engagement of PD-L1 and induction of immune-related pharmacodynamic responses consistent with PD-L1 blockade.

Trial registration number


For Additional News from OncWeekly – Your Front Row Seat To The Future of Cancer Care –




Sign up for our emails

Trusted insights straight to your inbox and get the latest updates from OncWeekly

Privacy Policy