Efficacy, safety, and biomarker analyses of bintrafusp alfa, a bifunctional fusion protein targeting TGF-{beta} and PD-L1, in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

March, 03, 2024 | Select Oncology Journal Articles


Bintrafusp alfa, a first-in-class bifunctional fusion protein targeting transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and programmed cell death ligand 1, has demonstrated encouraging efficacy as second-line treatment in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a dose expansion cohort of the phase 1, open-label clinical trial (NCT02517398). Here, we report the safety, efficacy, and biomarker analysis of bintrafusp alfa in a second expansion cohort of the same trial (biomarker cohort).


Patients with stage IIIb/IV NSCLC who were either immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-naïve (n=18) or ICI-experienced (n=23) were enrolled. The primary endpoint was the best overall response. Paired biopsies (n=9/41) and peripheral blood (n=14/41) pretreatment and on-treatment were studied to determine the immunological effects of treatment and for associations with clinical activity.


Per independent review committee assessment, objective responses were observed in the ICI-naïve group (overall response rate, 27.8%). No new or unexpected safety signals were identified. Circulating TGF-β levels were reduced (>97%; p<0.001) 2 weeks after initiation of treatment with bintrafusp alfa and remained reduced up to 12 weeks. Increases in lymphocytes and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) were observed in on-treatment biospies, with an increase in the M2 (tumor trophic TAMs)/M1 (inflammatory TAMs) ratio associated with poor outcomes. Specific peripheral immune analytes at baseline and early changes after treatment were associated with clinical response.


Bintrafusp alfa was observed to have modest clinical activity and manageable safety, and was associated with notable immunologic changes involving modulation of the tumor immune microenvironment in patients with advanced NSCLC.

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